Adzes of granite

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They made adzes of granite, basalt, argillite, even siltstone, from sources closer to home. They went to Berks County, in Pennsylvania, for gray chalcedony and brown jasper. They used glacial-erratic hornfels. They made arrowheads and spear points of Deepkill flint. They made drills and scrapers of Onondaga chert. Flint, chert, and jasper are daughters of chalcedony, which in turn is a variety of quartz. The Eastern flint belt runs from Ontario across New York State and then south to the Minisink. The Indians did not have to attend the Freiberg Mining Academy to be able to tell you that. They understood empirically the uniform bonding of cryptocrystalline quartz, which cannot be separated along flat planes but fractures conchoidally, by percussion, and makes a razor’s edge. The forests were alive with game on the sides of what the Lenape called the Endless Mountain. There were eels, shad, sturgeon in the river. The people lived among maize fields in osier cabins. They worshipped light and the four winds-all the elements of nature, orchestrated by the Great Manito. The flexplek huren rotterdam burial grounds of the Minsi display the finest vistas in the Minisink. As the dead were placed in the earth, they began their final journey, through the Milky Way. Indians first appeared in the Minisink about a hundredth of a million years ago. The carbonate rocks in the valley before us were close to five hundred million years old. They were one-ninth as old as the earth itself. For their contained conodonts, they were of special interest to Anita, and after the interstate dropped to the valley¬†floor we stopped at roadcuts to collect them. The roadcuts suggested the ruins of blocky walls built by Hellenic masons. They were on both sides of the interstate and in the median, too. There were bluish-white and pale-gray limestones, dolomites weathered buff. Rock will respond to weather with varieties of color-rusting red in its own magnetite, turning green from trace copper. Its appearance can be deceiving. Geologists are slow to identify exposures they have not seen before. They don’t just flexplek huren utrecht cruise around ticking off names at distances that would impress a hunter. They go up to outcrops, hit them with hammers, and look at the rock through ten-power lenses. If the possibilities include the carbonates, they try a few drops of hydrochloric acid. Limestone with hydrochloric acid on it immediately forms a head, like beer.

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