The multiple roadways were held in the air by large steel Ts. Deffeyes said, “It’s the engineer in a game against nature. In a great earthquake, the ground will turn to gray jello. Those Ts may uproot like tomato stakes. And that will seal everyone in town. Under the landfill, the preexisting mud in the old tidal channel will liquefy. You could wiggle your feet a bit and go up to your knees.” In igo6, the shaking over the old tidal channel that is now under the freeways was second in intensity only to the San Andreas fault zone itself, seven miles away. “Los Angeles, someday, will be sealed in worse than this,” he continued. “In the critical hours after a great earthquake, they will be cut off from help, food, water. Take one piece out of each freeway zakelijke energie vergelijken and they’re through.” In a rented pickup, we had entered California the day before, climbing the staircase of fault blocks west of Reno that had led the Donner party to the crest of the mountains named for snow. In California was the prow of the North American Plate-in these latitudes, the sliding boundary. California was also among the freshest acquisitions of the continent. So radical and contemporary were the regional tectonics that the highest and the lowest points in the contiguous United States were within eighty miles of each other in California. As nowhere else along the fortieth parallel in North America, this was where the theory of plate tectonics was announcing its agenda. Over the years, I would c1isscross the country many times, revisiting people and places, yet the first morning with Deffeyes among the rocks of California retains a certain burnish, because it exemplified not only how abrupt the transition can be as you zakelijke energie move from one physiographic province to another but also the jurisdictional cliffe rences in the world of the geologist. As we crossed the state line under a clear sky and ascended toward Truckee, we passed big masses of competent, blocky, beautiful rocks bright in their quartzes and feldspars and peppered with shining black mica. The ebullient Deffeyes said, “Come into the Sierra and commune with the granite.” A bend or two later, his mood extending even to the diamondshaped warnings at the side of the road, he said, “Falling-rock signs are always good news to us.”
This strip mine, no less than an erupting volcano, was a point in the world where geologic time and human time overtly commingled. Ordinarily, the close relationship between the two is masked: human time, full of beepers and board meetings, sirens and Senate caucuses, all happening in microtemporal units that physicists call picoseconds; geologic time, with its forty-six hundred million years, delivering a message that living creatures prefer to return unopened to the sender. In this place, though, geology had come up out of its depths to join the present world, and, as Love would put it, all hell had broken loose. “How people look at it depends on whose ox is being gored,” he said. “If you’re in a brownout, you think it’s great. If you’re downwind, you don’t. Wyoming’s ox is being gored.” When the Bridger operation was zakelijke energie under construction, hundreds of tents and trailers lined most of the five miles of the spur road to the site-an “impact” that ultimately shifted to Rock Springs, thirty miles away, and Superior, and other small towns in the region. Populations doubled during the coal rush, which was close in time to the booms in trona mining and oil. Even after the booms had settled
down, twenty-eight per cent of the people of Wyoming were living in mobile homes. During the construction of Jim Bridger, Rock Springs, especially, became a heavy-duty town, attracting people with no strong attachments elsewhere who came into the country in pickups painted with flames. With its bar fights and prostitutes, it was wild frontier territory, or seemed so to almost everyone but David Love. “Fights were once fights,” he commented. “Now the fight starts and your friends hold you zakelijke energie vergelijken back while you throw insults.” Cars were stripped of anything that would come off. Pushers arrived with every kind of substance that could stun the human brain. A McDonald’s sprang up, of course, decorated with archaic rifles, with plastic cattle brands lighted from the inside, with romantic paintings of Western gunfights-horses rearing under blazing pistols on dusty streets lined with false-fronted stores.
In the absence of a colliding continent-playing the role that Europe and Africa are said to have played in the making of the Appalachians-theorists have lately turned to the concept of exotic terranes: island arcs like Japan slamming up against the North American mainland one after another, accreting what are now the far western states, and erecting in the course of these collisions the evidential mountains. Whatever the truth in that may be, a tectonic coincidence very much worth noting is that the development of the western mountain ranges begins at the same time as the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. In the middle Mesozoic, as the Atlantic opens, the North American lithosphere, like a great rug, begins to slide west, abutting, for the most part, the Pacific Plate. A rug sliding across a room will crumple up against the far wall. ‘We’re about a thousand miles from the nearest plate boundary,” Love was saying. ‘We should not tie in the landscape here with events that have taken place along tl1e coast. This doesn’t neutralize or dispose of the theory of plate tectonics, but applied here it’s incongruous-it’s kind of like a rabbit screwing a horse. There is no evidence of plates grinding against each other here. The thrust sheets are probably symptoms of plate-tectonic activity fifty million years ago, but the chief problem is that tectonism is zakelijke energie vergelijken not adequately placed in a time framework here. Almost everybody now agrees that there is tremendous significance to plate tectonics-also that the concept is valid. Most people don’t argue about that anymore. Our arguments come in the details. We should dissect all these mountain ranges before we get diarrhea of the pen trying to clue them in to plate theory. There’s nothing wrong with ideas, with working hypotheses, but unsubstantiated glittering generalities are a waste of time. Most of the megathinkers are basing sweeping interpretations on pretty inadequate data. There are swarms of papers being written by people who have been looking at state and federal and worldwide geologic maps and coming to sweeping conclusions on how mountains were zakelijke energie formed and what the forces involved were. Until we know the anatomy of each mountain range, how are we going to say what came up when-or if they all came up in one great spasm? You can’t assume they’re all the same.
After Yale, Love worked a season for the U.S. Geological Survey in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, scratching his way a step at a time through the dense, stiff branches of scrub oak that-ninety years before-had held up the Donner party enough to set the scheduie for its eventual rendezvous with snow. Employed by the Shell Oil Company, he spent five years looking for areas of possible oil accumulation in the structures of Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Kentucky, Georgia, Arkansas, Michigan, Alabama, and Tennessee. This increased his experience in ways that included a good deal more than rocks-especially in the zakelijke energie vergelijken southern Appalachians. Looking for outcrops, he walked many hundreds of miles of stream beds, “brushing water moccasins to one side.” He studied roadcuts and railroad cuts. He slept where the day ended. Sometimes he stayed, for weeks at a time, with farmers. A farmer in Tennessee took him aside one day and offered him his unusually beautiful teen-age daughter in marriage if David would buy her a pair of shoes-her first. Apparently, the girl had developed such a longing for the young geologist that her father wanted her to have him. David felt that he was receiving “the ultimate compliment,” for the farmer wanted to give him what the farmer valued most in the world. Earnestly, he wished not to offend, lest, among other things, he lose his advantage in a complicated country dissected by entrenched streams, a prime piece of the Mississippi Embayment, as geologists call the great bulb of sediments that reaches from the mouth of the Mississippi River as far north as Paducah, Kentucky. The farmer zakelijke energie was in a strategic position to permit the young geologist to find certain permeable sandstones wedging out between layers of shale in updips where migrating petroleum might have become trapped. So he was anxious not to ruffle the feelings of his host. Besides, he was engaged.
The family’s main sitting and dining room was a restaurant from Old Muskrat. On the walls were polished buffalo horns mounted on shields. The central piece of furniture was a gambling table from Joe Lacey’s Muskrat Saloon. It was a poker-and-roulette tableround, covered with felt. Still intact were the subtle flanges that had caused the roulette wheel to stop just where the operator wished it to. And if you reached in under the table in the right place you could feel the brass slots where the dealer kept wild cards that he could call upon when the fiscal integrity of the house was threatened. If you put your nose down on the felt, you zakelijke energie could almost smell the gunsmoke. At this table David L<?ve received his basic educationhis schoolroom a restaurant, his desk a gaming table from a saloon. His mothei;_ may have been trying to academize the table when she covered it with a red-and-white India print. When other schoolmarms were provided by the district, they came for three months in summer. One came for the better part of a year. By and large, though, the boys were taught by their mother. She had a rolltop desk, and Peggy Daugherty’s glassed-in bookcases. She had the i911 Encyclopcedia Britannica, the Redpath Library, a hundred volumes of Greek and Roman literature, Shakespeare, Dickens, Emerson, Thoreau, Longfellow, Kipling, Twain. She taught her sons French, Latin, and a bit of Greek. She read to them from books in German, translating as she went along. They read the Iliad and the Odyssey. The room was at the west end of the ranch house and was brightly illuminated by the setting sun. When David as a child saw sunbeams leaping off the books, he thought the contents were escaping. In some ways, there zakelijke energie vergelijken was more chaos in this remote academic setting than there could ever be in a grade school in the heart of a city.
The house might be full of men, waiting out a storm, or riding on a roundup. I was baking, canning, washing clothes, making soap. Allan and David stood by the gasoline washing machine reading history or geography while I put sheets through the wringer.
During those thirty million years after things went blah, the Rockies were quietly buried ever deeper in their own debris-and, not so peacefully, in materials oozing overland or falling from the sky. Much came in on the wind from remote explosive volcanoesstratovolcanoes of huge size in Idal10, Oregon, Nevada. “And maybe Arizona and California, for all we know,” Love said. “Clinical details are still inadequate. By the end of the Eocene, the Washakie and Owl Creek Mountains were so deeply buried that the Wind River and Bighorn Basins had coalesced above them. At the end of the Oligocene, only a thousand to four thousand feet of tl1e highest mountains protruded above the aggradational plain. Streams were slow and zakelijke energie vergelijken sluggish and so choked with ash they were unable to erode.” Rhinoceroses lived through those changes, and ancestral deer and antelope, and little horses with three toes. As altitude and aridity increased, a subtropical world of figs, magnolias, and breadfruit cooled into forests of maple, oak, and beech. Altitude alone could not account for the increasing coolness. It foreshadowed the coming ice. The burial of the mountains continued far into the Miocene, with-as Love described it-“surprising thicknesses of sandstone and tuffaceous debris.” Volcanic sands, from Yellowstone and from elsewhere to the west, were spread by the wind, and in places formed giant dunes. Two thousand feet of sand accumulated in central Wyoming. Nineteen thousand-the thickest Miocene deposit in America-went into the sinking Jackson Hole. From the Wind River Mountains southward to Colorado and eastward to Nebraska, the plain was unbroken except for the zakelijke energie tops of the highest peaks. Rivers were several thousand feet higher than they are now. The ranges, buried almost to their summits, were separated by hundreds of miles of essentially flat terrain.
Mrs. Welty diverted him with questions about travellers marooned in snowdrifts. Mrs. Welty was aware that Mr. Doughertywho was missing six fingers, one leg, and half of his remaining foot -was an authority on this topic. In i883, a blizzard had overtaken him and his one passenger, a young woman comparable in age to Miss Waxham. When the snow became so deep that the coach ceased to move, he unhitched a horse. Already stiff with frostbite, he hung on to the harness while the animal hauled him through drifts. The horse dragged Dougherty for hours, until he finally lost his grip and let go, having nearly reached a stage-line station. Into the wind, he shouted successfully for help. When rescuers reached the stagecoach, the passenger was dead. Dougherty remarked to Mrs. Welty that winters lately had not been so severe. “No,” she agreed. “And we haven’t had a blizzard this kantoor per uur rotterdam summer.”
The sun set, and the stars rose, and the cold grew more intense ….A bout half past nine, we reached the supper station, stiff with cold.
This was Rongis, a community of a few dozen people just south of Crooks Gap. “Rongis” was an ananym-so named by an employee of the stagecoach company whose own name was Eli Signor. Lost Soldier, Rongis-such names are absent now among the Zip Codes of Wyoming, but the ruins of the stations remain.
Supper was soon ready, a canned supper, with the usual dried-apple pie and monstrous biscuits and black coffee. About ten we started out again, with a new relay of horses. More wrapped up than ever, we sat close to each other to keep kantoor per uur utrecht warm, and leaned against the sacks of mail behind us.
The night before, at Rongis, the temperature had gone to zero. As the stage moved into Crooks Gap, the bright starlight fell on fields of giant boulders black-and-silver in relief. Some were as large as houses. In time, it would be determined that they had come down off high mountains farther north that were no longer high-mountains that had somehow sunk into the plain.
Which is what ice did at Yosemite-with the difference that the walls of Yosemite are speckled white granite, while the canyon walls of Cleveland are flaky black gasiferous anoxic shale. As mud, the shale was deposited in quiet water in a late Devonian sea. The rock contains the unoxidized remains of so many living things that it is by volume as much as twenty per cent organic. In thin laminations, it grew layer upon layerpaper shale. “The water was so quiet you can trace the same little lens forever,” Anita said. “The formation produces gas like crazy. The gas migrates up into the sandstone above, which holds it. Berea sandstone. People drill their own wells to the Berea and heat their homes.” Much of Cleveland’s metropolitan-park system is in the deep Yosemite of the Cuyahoga River, under paper-flake co-working space rotterdam carbon cliffs-a natural world of natural gas. Like the Cuyahoga today, most rivers in Ohio before the recent ice sheets looked for outlets to the north and northwest. Nearly all were wiped away by the planing drive of ice. Water pooled against the glacial front and spilled away to the south and west. It skirted the ice, roughly tracing its southernmost outline, forming a new river system and a “periglacial valley”-the Ohio River, the Ohio Valley.
When Darwin published The Origin of Species, its affront to organized religion did not altogether exceed the dismay that was felt in science. Even Sir Charles Lyell said, “Darwin goes too far.” Tho
Book 2: In Suspect Terrain mas Henry Huxley and a few others were supportive, but almost every paleontologist in the British Isles was flat negative, and the geologist Adam Sedgwick, of Cambridge University, who, with Murchison, had co-working space utrecht discerned and established the Devonian system, described himself reading Darwin “with more pain than pleasure.” He said, “Parts of it I admired greatly, parts I laughed at till my sides were almost sore; other parts I read with absolute sorrow, because I think them utterly false and grievously mischievous. Many …w ide conclusions are based upon assumptions which can neither be proved nor disproved ….D arwin has deserted utterly the inductive track and taken the broadway of hypothesis.”
In Alabama, the mountains come up from under the Gulf Coastal Plain and bend right into Georgia and then left into Tennessee and right into North Carolina and left in the Virginias and right in Pennsylvania and left in New Jersey and New York and right in Quebec and New Brunswick and left in Newfoundland. Some people believe that in this Appalachian sinuosity we are seeing the coastline of the Precambrian continent -North America in the good old days, when the Taconic Orogeny was off in the future and these big, scalloped bends were the bays of Iapetan seas. Signify what they may, their repetitive formality co-working space amsterdam through two thousand miles does not suggest the random impacts of exotic terranes, nor, for that matter, does it suggest the ragged margins of crashing continents. The Great Valley, as the most prominent axial feature of the Appalachians, also seems inconvenient to the narrative of colliding lands, because the soft black slates and shales and the dissolving carbonates that make up the valley from end to end were all moved a great many miles northwest, and if random New Zealands and the odd Madagascar were shoving at different times in different places, one would expect the formations to be considerably offset. One would imagine that miscellaneously disturbed rock-folded, faulted, shuffled, thrusted, disarrangedwould be much too chaotically bulldozed to emerge through erosion as an integral, elongate, and co-working space eindhoven geometrically formal valley. Similar thoughts come to mind with regard to the Precambrian highlands in their sinuous journey from the Great Smokies to the Green Mountains, and the Piedmont as well: the consistent, curving, parallel stripes of the Appalachian ensemble. Anita, for the moment, was more interested in tangible limestone than in how it had been shoved and deformed. Eight miles west of Bloomsburg, she saw a limestone outcrop that looked good enough to sample. It was a quarter of a mile off the interstate, and we walked to it. She dropped some acid on it. Vigorously, the outcrop foamed. “It’s upper Silurian limestone,” she said. “I shouldn’t be able to tell you that without running the conodonts, but I know.” “What if you’re wrong?”
In i839, Agassiz went to the glaciers on tl1e apron of the Matterhorn, the glaciers under the Eiger and the Jungfrau. He walked up the Aar Glacier to the base of the Finsteraarhorn, the highest peak in the Bernese Oberland. “There I ascertained the most important fact that I now know concerning the advance of glaciers,” he wrote later. From a message in a bottle in a cabin on the ice, he had learned that the monk who built the place in i827 had returned nine years later to find it more than two thousand feet down the mountain. Agassiz established his own shelter on tl1e Aar Glacier. He and his colleagues drove stakes into the ice-a row of them straight across the glacier-and before long discovered that glacier ice, like a river, flows more rapidly in the center and also tends to speed up toward the co-working space rotterdam outsides of bends. Diverting a meltwater stream that was pouring into a deep hole in the ice, he set up a sturdy tripod at the surface and had himself lowered into the glacier. He was twenty fathoms down in a banded sapphire world when his feet touched water and he shouted instructions that his descent be stopped. His colleagues on the glacier misinterpreted his cry and lowered him into the water. The next shout was different and was clearly understood. The dripping Agassiz was raised toward the surface among stalactites of Damoclean ice, so big that had they broken they would have killed him. Concluding the experiment, he said, “Unless induced by some powerful scientific motive, I should advise anyone to follow my example.” The better to see the co-working space utrecht alpinevalley ice in its regional perspective, Agassiz and his team climbed mountains-they climbed the Jungfrau, the Schreckhorn, the Finsteraarhorn-and made their observations from the summits, completely unmindful atop a number of the mountains that no one had been there before. Agassiz went to England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, looking for the tracks of glaciers. He found them in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. As in Switzerland, he saw roches nwutonnees-humps of exposed bedrock that were characteristically smooth on the side from which the ice had arrived, and plucked and shattered on the other. “The surface of Europe, adorned before by a tropical vegetation and inhabited by troops of large elephants, enormous hippopotami, and gigantic carnivora, was suddenly buried under a vast mantle of ice, covering alike plains, lakes, seas, and plateaus,” he wrote in his Etudes sur les Glaciers (1840).